The calcium carbonate as a filler including natural powders and sedimentary products are widely used in various industries; some of the specific ones are gcc or pcc, and some others are common.
The most important applications of precipitated calcium carbonate (pcc) are paper, paint and surface coatings, plastics, different adhesives, putty materials, polymers, chemical fertilizers, animals’ food, food industries, pharmaceutical industries, cosmetics industries etc. Because of its purity, pcc is more applicable than gcc.
The most important applications of micronized calcium carbonate (gcc) are paper, paint and surface coatings, plastics, different adhesives, putty materials, polymers, chemical fertilizers, animals’ food, food industries, pharmaceutical industries, cosmetics industries, insecticides and toxins, cleaners, glass and ceramics, gas desulfurization and water refinery.
The main application of the calcium carbonate is the paint industry; this material as a dyestuff in emulsion paints could be an alternation of some parts of the needs for Tio2.
The Calcium carbonate can be used in the production of different types of printing ink; the fine-grained calcium carbonate is used for this purpose.
Plastic and Rubber Industries
In this industry, very fine-grained calcium carbonate is used; the calcium carbonate prevents the polymers clotting and improves their dispersion properties; the most significant user of this material is Polyvinyl Chloride (PVC). Since PVC is a heat sensitive thermoplastic, a certain combination has to be added to it to make it a final product. Increasing these materials plays a very important role in the PVC process as well as in its efficiency. Thermal stabilizers are used in the process of all PVC products and are important in terms of application and efficiency. Other important additives that are used are softeners, lubricants, impact resistance modifiers, fillers, and dyestuffs. Special properties may also be obtained by using inflator factors, anti-flammability materials, antifungal materials, antistatic materials etc. The selected polymer and the method of combining it with the mentioned additives directly depend on the physical form of the product, the processing method, and expected properties type of the final product. The oldest technique used in this field is to pour the resin and other constituents into a strip mixer or a high-speed mixer, transferring the mixture to a roller, and then into a Banbury Machine or a continuous mixer where the mixture is under hot mixing operation associated with the above-mentioned arrangement. The fillers are used to reduce prices; calcium carbonate is one of the fillers.
The micronized powder of the calcium carbonate is used to equip rubber objects and also to strengthen these types of products, as well as to increase formability and damping against the pressure and hard PVC special impact. The amount of micronized powder in this industry is estimated to be 25%.
The characteristics of the micronized powder in this industry are as follows:
Cao, more than 97%; Fe2O3, less than 3% and its grading is more than 350 mesh.
The calcium carbonate is considered as a coating material and a filter in the paper industry; the main market for the calcium carbonate in the paper industry is the production of cigarette paper; some properties the such as cigarettes combustion are controlled by this material.
Baby powder and toothpaste manufacturers are the most important consumers of calcium carbonate in these industries; using calcium carbonate in baby powder and body powder, leads to adhesion eliminating, powder easy movement, and increasing absorption capacity.
The calcium carbonate is used as a clotting auxiliary factor in polishers and metal cleaners.
In this industry, high-quality calcium carbonate with valid criteria must be used; This material is used to prepare syrup and anti-acid tablets, in antibiotics for neutralization and as a filtering aid, in soluble tablets as a solvent and strengthening factors, and calcium tablets as a source of calcium intake.
The calcium carbonate in the food industries is used as an acid-neutralizing factor and chewing gum manufacturing.
The calcium carbonate is almost insoluble in normal water and slowly dissolves in water with some carbon dioxide or high ammonium salts. It is almost insoluble in alcohol and reacts with acetic acid, chloride acid and nitric acid.
The calcium carbonate with anti-acidic properties is used for the treatment of renal defects and osteoporosis and acts as calcium supplements. The calcium carbonate is recommended for hyperphosphatemia patients associated with renal defects, because by joining the phosphate, it prevents more phosphate absorption by the stomach and intestines.
The calcium carbonate is also used in homoepathic medicines (a kind of pharmacotherapy) and in food additives. In addition, due to its absorption properties, it is used in anti-diarrhea medicines.
The calcium carbonate in reaction with gastric acid converts into calcium chloride, and the resulting carbon dioxide gas may cause stomach bloating in some patients. Some of the calcium is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract, but about 85% of it is excreted again as calcium salts such as calcium carbonate.
Usually, each time, one gram of calcium carbonate is taken as an antacid, together with other antacids, especially magnesium-bearing antacids.
Calcite mineral is used to prepare calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium bromide (CaBr2), calcium iodide (CaI2), calcium oxide (CaO), and each one has many applications in the pharmaceutical industries, and even, they are useful for the preparation of veterinary medicines.
Calcium chloride (CaCl2) produces a medicine that produces acid in the body, and in cases that calcium ion content is low, calcium chloride is used to quickly supply the calcium deficiency. Calcium chloride pharmaceutical ingredients are used to treat the effects of some sensitivities such as hives, dyspnea, itching and other sensitivity-bearing inflammations.
Calcium chloride accelerates the blood coagulation and is used to prevent severe bleeding. In addition, this substance is added as a supplement to heart failure-bearing medicines to treat heartbeat arrhythmia. Calcium chloride is used to treat the complications of diarrhea, vomiting, as well as tuberculars’ sweating.
Calcium bromide (CaBr2) is used as anticonvulsant medicine in the treatment of
epilepsy. It also pacifies the stomach pains.
Calcium iodide (CaI2) is used to prepare skin anti-inflammatory ointments and chronic arthritis.
Calcium oxide (CaO) is widely used in the preparation of limewater to eliminate warts and abscess. The limewater is used as an antidote against poisoning by sulfuric acid and oxalic acid.
The above-mentioned calcium compounds are also widely used in the preparation of veterinary medicines.
The calcium carbonate is as a combined powder of calcium carbonate, combined powder and tablet of magnesium carbonate. As well, alumina, magnesia, and calcium carbonate suspension, alumina, magnesia, and calcium carbonate tablet, and calcium carbonate tablet are other examples of calcium carbonate medicine products.
The soil calcium carbonate and precipitated calcium carbonate are mostly used in paper, plastic and paint industries. The paper is made up of cellulosic material, and its fibers fill with mineral particles; coating materials are used to increase the quality of printing on the paper, and calcium carbonate can form 5-50% of them.
The calcium carbonate can act as a pigment, and diminishes the need for polymers, thus, in PVC sheets, pipes and windows, 5-35% of the composition is calcium carbonate. In the paint industries, 10-35% of the volume of aqueous emulsions or solvents could be made up of the calcium carbonate to reduce the amount of usable TiO2.
- The calcium carbonate is a reduction factor in the extraction of some metals such as uranium, zirconium, thorium, and beryllium.
- It is used for deoxygenation, desulfurization, or decarburization for all kinds of iron non-iron alloys.
- It is used as an alloying factor in the production of aluminum, beryllium, copper, lead and magnesium alloys.
- It is used as a reduction factor for beryllium.
- It is used for dehydrating of different oil types and the petroleum.
- It is used in tubes and vacuum cylinders.
- It is used in different types of agriculture fertilizers, concrete and walls plaster.
- Calcium is an essential component of shells, bones, teeth and plant structures.
- It is used in Sugar factories:
In the preparation of sugar, limestone is used for the purification and separation phosphate compounds and organic acids. In factories that use sugar beet, 250 kg of limestone is applied for each tonne of sugar, and in the factories that use sugarcane, 2 to 7 kg of limestone is utilized for preparation of each tonne of sugar.